top of page

Software, Hardware, and Hybrid, Conferencing Environments

Hardware Solutions

Hardware solutions are traditional video conferencing solutions, or hardware equipment, that use standards-based protocols to communicate to each other.

Traditionally, hardware solutions required similar hardware at all locations to be able to communicate to each other. This required an audio-visual system that connected the hardware solution to displays, cameras, microphones and speakers. This required a dedicated conference room that was outfitted with other hardware equipment, in order to accomplish a conferencing event.

Hardware solutions also required each hardware solution to have a particular license in order to call more than one location—a license called multi-site to allow for up to five locations to join the same conference event.

More than five locations required another hardware solution called a "video bridge" to allow more than five locations to be on the same conference event. This can be a cloud service or on-premises equipment.

Hardware solution’s primary function for communication was voice and video. Content sharing can also be accomplished if the AV solution allows for video connection of a computer to the hardware solution. Hardware solutions don't provide messaging, presence, or software collaboration.

Hybrid Solutions

"Hybrid solutions" are audio-visual systems which utilize both hardware VTC solutions with computer-based software conferencing solutions. "Hybrid" may also refer to:

  • systems which use a cloud or on-premises "bridging solution" to facilitate cross-platform communications.

  • software-only solution communicating with a hardware-only solution, or vice versa.

Some hardware providers offer software solutions which allow desktop and laptop computers to use traditional hardware protocols to communicate to traditional hardware.

Software Solutions

Software solutions are applications that are installed on a computer device and that allow for communication with other devices that have the same software installed, such as Microsoft Teams and Zoom.

Software solutions are usually proprietary and not capable of cross-platform communication. For example: Zoom cannot natively communicate with Microsoft Teams and vice versa.

Software solutions tend to offer a broader range of collaboration features than hardware solutions, such as:

  • Presence

  • Chat

  • Messaging

  • Direct messaging File sharing/transfer

  • Application collaboration (Microsoft Office apps, live editing, group creation, file storage, etc.)

Software solutions normally allow for unlimited participants.

Software solutions can provide audience participation opportunities—via moderated chat, audio, or video—during live events like webinars and town halls.

Software solutions can be integrated into an existing AV solution and used in conference rooms or within larger systems. Connectivity for software solutions is sometimes limited to the computer hardware being used.

Software integrations typically require "ingest hardware" which allows AV equipment to be used as peripherals and accessed by the software.

The popularity of software solutions has increased steadily, however, hardware conferencing solutions are often required in high-security environments.

Professional-grade platforms typically used in commercial, government, and defense sectors:




Cisco - Webex



Microsoft Teams

Predominantly software

MTR solutions and Surface Hub available*


Predominantly software

Certified hardware appliances available


Predominantly bridging

Predominantly bridging


Predominantly software


Ring Central

Predominantly software



Predominantly software and bridging


Google Meet/Workspace

Predominantly software

All-in-one hardware displays available

*MTRs are not currently approved for DoD use. IL5 certification not approved?

Platform capabilities:





Uses traditional video and audio standards

Protocols: H.323, SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), H.239 Content Share, BFCP Content share.

Video: H.264, H.265, H.263.

Audio: G.711, G.722, G.722.1, G.729AB.


Presence, messaging, chat



Content sharing

Yes with H.239 or BFCP


Live collaboration or live editing



Webinar or town Hall

Limited to hardware license or external bridging


File sharing and storage




None or requires additional AV hardware


* May require additional licensing


bottom of page